Triazine formationOn 30.10.2020 by Faushura
Focal points include method of scavenging, application limits, treatment efficiency, production systems, downstream risks, as well as environmental impacts. Water injection for enhanced oil recovery always carries some risk of reservoir souring, whether produced water or sea water is injected. Various mitigation strategies can be employed to reduce this risk, including nitrate injection, low salinity LoSal sea water injection, and the use of sulfate removal units SRUs. Various remediation strategies also exist for dealing with soured production, including catalyst scavenger beds, precipitator chemicals, amine units, and liquid scavenger chemicals.
Mitigation, remediation, or a combination may be necessary to achieve export and safety specifications.
Operating conditions will also influence the selection of treatment strategies and ultimate application locations. Solid scavengers are very effective in stripping H2S from gas streams down to trace levels; however, they require significant capital expenditure, and are often labor intensive during media change out. They generally have low OPEX, are predictable in their removal rates, usually do not require additional chemicals, and generally do not impact downstream processes or overboard water.
As the spent waste of the non-regenerative solid options require removal or disposal, this can be impractical for offshore applications.
The large footprint and limited capacity of regenerative solid options, combined with the production of a concentrated sour waste gas stream during regeneration, also make them less practical for offshore use. Liquid scavengers, in general, take up less space and weight than solid scavengers, but are significantly less efficient at removing the H2S from the gas stream; the OPEX is significantly higher compared to solid scavengers.
Liquid scavengers offer more options for retrofitting H2S scavenging to an existing facility. Possible liquid scavenging options include, but are not limited to the following:. Triazine, the most commonly used liquid H2S scavenger, is a heterocyclic structure similar to cyclohexane, but with three carbon atoms replaced by nitrogen atoms.
Three variations of triazine exist, based on the location of the substitution of nitrogen atoms, as shown in Figure 1. Further variations involving substitutions of the hydrogen atoms with other functional groups are used in various industries. In direct-injection applications, the triazine is sprayed directly into the gas or mixed fluid stream, usually with an atomizing quill. Removal rate is dependent upon the H2S dissolution into the triazine solution, rather than the reaction rate.
This method is excellent for removing H2S when there is good annular-mist flow and sufficient time to react. Most suppliers recommend a minimum of 15 — 20 seconds of contact time with the product for best results. In order for direct injection to be effective, careful consideration of injection location and product selection must be used.
In a contactor tower, the feed gas is bubbled through a tower filled with triazine. As the gas bubbles up through the liquid, gas dissolves into the triazine and H2S is removed.
The limiting factors in this application are the surface area of the bubble, the concentration of the solution, and bubble path time contact time. Finer bubbles give a better reaction rate, but they can produce unwanted foaming. This application is not appropriate for high gas flow rates. As a result, far less chemical is used and a significant reduction in OPEX can be realized. However, the contactor tower and chemical storage take up significant space and weight, making them less practical for offshore application.
One mole of triazine reacts with two moles of H2S to form dithiazine, the main byproduct. An intermediate product is formed, but rarely seen.
The reaction is shown in Figure 3. The R-groups that are released during the two-step reaction vary by the supplier, and can be tailored for solubility. Continued reaction can result in the formation of an insoluble trithiane product.
Reacted triazine byproducts are readily biodegradable and relatively non-toxic. Unreactedexcess triazine has very high aquatic toxicity and a tendency to form carbonate scale with produced water or sea water; this can result in emulsion stabilization, and increased overboard oil-in-water OIW content.
Unreacted triazine is also problematic for refineries as it impacts the desalting process and can cause accelerated corrosion within crude oil distillation units. It can also cause foaming in glycol and amine units and cause discoloration of glycol units.
Unpleasant odor has also been reported with excess triazine usage, but some suppliers offer low-odor versions. Triazine itself is relatively safe to handle, but it can cause chemical burns upon contact. Triazine has been used successful around the globe by many operators and facilities.It is a six-membered heterocyclic aromatic ring, one of several isomeric triazines.
S -triazine—the "symmetric" isomer—and its derivatives are useful in a variety of applications.New Protocols for the Synthesis of Stable Ag and Au Nanocluster Molecules
Symmetrical 1,3,5-triazines are prepared by trimerization of certain nitriles such as cyanogen chloride or cyanimide. Benzoguanamine with one phenyl and 2 amino substituents is synthesised from benzonitrile and dicyandiamide.
Amine-substituted triazines called Guanamines are prepared by the condensation of cyanoguanidine with the corresponding nitrile : . As a reagent in organic synthesiss -triazine is used as the equivalent of hydrogen cyanide HCN. Being a solid vs a gas for HCNtriazine is sometimes easier to handle in the laboratory.
One application is in the Gattermann reactionused to attach the formyl group to aromatic substrates. N- and C-substituted triazines are used industrially.
The most common derivative of 1,3,5-triazine is 1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triamine, commonly known as melamine or cyanuramide. Another important derivative is 1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triol better known as cyanuric acid. Chlorinated triazines are the basis of an important family of reactive dyeswhich are covalently attached to cellulosic materials.
Triazines are also found in pharmaceutical products.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from S-triazine. CAS Number. Interactive image. Chemical formula. Molecular shape. Dipole moment. Cambridge: The Royal Society of Chemistry. Simons and M. Saxton Organic Syntheses Coll. Pinner, Ber. Mundy, Michael G. Ellerd, Frank G. Simons; M. Saxton Categories : Triazines Nitrogen heterocycles. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. Help Learn to edit Community portal Recent changes Upload file.Crude oil production, pipelines, terminals, barges and refineries experience the release of H2S.
Increasing government regulations and finished product specification as well as concern for internal corrosion control is requiring the removal of H2S from the crude oil. Recent studies have demonstrated that the use of amine or triazine sulfide scavengers to control sulfide can result in the formation of monoethanolamine MEA triazines which have shown to be very problematic and corrosive to refineries.
However, concerns regarding the use of amine-based H2S scavenging compounds and the effects these formulations have during the processing of treated crude oils have recently surfaced.
Crude unit corrosion and fouling in overhead systems and tower trays are attributed to the use ofamine-based H2S scavengers. Of the chemical families of nitrogen based H2S scavengers, triazine chemistry is most often employed to abate H2S from crude oil and as such the use of triazine chemistry is ubiquitous throughout the Petroleum and Refining Industry. Chemistry and Impacts of commonly used amine-based H2S scavengers on crude unit towers and overheads.
Nace International. Paper The product can also be used in storage tanks and be recirculated. It is recommended to maximize the contact time of the product to enhance its performance. For treatment of hydrocarbon streams, it should be injected near the inlet valve of a transfer pump. Once the product reacts, it will migrate into the heavier water phase where it can be disposed of in the produced water stream or go directly into a waste water treatment facility.
Does not cause sludge formation with over treatment. It is highly engineered for the treatment of hydrocarbon streams that will be processed in refineries, and is recommended to treat from downhole to the refineries. This product is shipped in bulk or gallon totes. Simple installation and injection of chemistry.
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Application Crude oil production, pipelines, terminals, barges and refineries experience the release of H2S. Does not cause sludge formation with over treatment It is highly engineered for the treatment of hydrocarbon streams that will be processed in refineries, and is recommended to treat from downhole to the refineries.
Product Availability This product is shipped in bulk or gallon totes. Simple installation and injection of chemistry Product in Stock!! Find out more.Triazines are a class of nitrogen-containing heterocycles. The parent molecules' molecular formula is C 3 H 3 N 3. They exist in three isomeric forms, 1,3,5-triazines being common.
The triazines have planar six-membered benzene -like ring but with three carbons replaced by nitrogens. The three isomers of triazine are distinguished by the positions of their nitrogen atomsand are referred to as 1,2,3-triazine, 1,2,4-triazine, and 1,3,5-triazine.
Other aromatic nitrogen heterocycles are pyridines with one ring nitrogen atom, diazines with 2 nitrogen atoms in the ring, triazoles with 3 nitrogens in a 5 membered ring, and tetrazines with 4 ring nitrogen atoms. A well known triazine is melamine 2,4,6-triamino-1,3,5-triazine. With three amino substituentsmelamine is a precursor to commercial resins. Guanamines are closely related to melamine, except with one amino substituent replaced by an organic group.
This difference is exploited in the use of guanamines to modify the crosslinking density in melamine resins.
Some commercially important guanamines are benzoguanamine and acetoguanamine. Another important triazine is cyanuric chloride 2,4,6-trichloro-1,3,5-triazine. Chlorine-substituted triazines are components of reactive dyes. Triazine compounds are often used as the basis for various herbicides.
Triazines also have wide use in the oil and gas and petroleum processing industries as a non-regenerating sulfide removal agent; they are applied to fluid streams to remove hydrogen sulfide gas and mercaptan species, which can decrease the quality of the processed hydrocarbon and be harmful to pipeline and facility infrastructure if not removed. The more common 1,3,5-isomers are prepared by trimerization of nitrile and cyanide compounds, although more specialized methods are known.
The 1,2,3- and 1,2,4-Triazines are more specialized methods. The former family of triazines can be synthesized by thermal rearrangement of 2-azidocyclopropenes.
Also mainly of specialized interest, the 1,2,4-isomer is prepared from condensation of 1,2-dicarbonyl compounds with amidrazones. A classical synthesis is also the Bamberger triazine synthesis. Although triazines are aromatic compounds, their resonance energy is much lower than in benzene. Electrophilic aromatic substitution is difficult but nucleophilic aromatic substitution easier than typical chlorinated benzenes.
With amines, one or more chloride is displaced.Current Filters. SPE Disciplines. Geologic Time. Concept Tag. Oilfield Places. File Type.
Schuber, Paul Solugen Inc. An, Jun Su Solugen Inc. Arceo, Chris Solugen Inc. Lee, Toni Solugen Inc. Helander, Jason Solugen Inc. Swanson, Tom Solugen Inc. Huddleston, Korry Solugen Inc. Chakrabarti, Gaurab Solugen Inc. Hunt, Sean Solugen Inc. Ngantung, Frederyk Solugen Inc. Siraji, Abdul Solugen Inc. OnePetro July, In the oil and gas industry, hydrogen sulfide H 2 S is considered a toxic, pungent gas that poses environmental and human health issues.
Even though the product is cheap and has a high scavenging efficacy for H 2 S, triazine is associated with risks including fouling, corrosion, and environmental hazards. Oxidized sugar products are chemically intriguing due to their equilibrium with several cyclic isomers, which can be accessed under certain conditions.Erika, United States Classic Scotland, September 2016 We had an amazing trip.
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Barca should have lost against Sociedad(fucking cheaters). Both are not in their best form. I think an X is most likely. Follow This forum is closedno new threads or posts can be created.
Follow Follow Follow Follow Follow Follow This forum is closedno new threads or posts can be created. Watch out for Adama Traore though.
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Arsenal's 2nd string will get another run out on Thursday.
H2S Scavenging: Using Triazine
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